Harlem is a large neighborhood in the northern section of the New York City borough of Manhattan. Since the 1920s, Harlem has been known as a major African American residential, cultural and business center. Originally a Dutch village, formally organized in 1658, it is named after the city of Haarlem in the Netherlands. Harlem's history has been defined by a series of economic boom-and-bust cycles, with significant population shifts accompanying each cycle.Following the Civil War of 1861–1865, Harlem was predominantly occupied by Jewish and Italian Americans. African-American residents began to arrive in large numbers in 1905, as part of the Great Migration. In the 1920s and 1930s, Central and West Harlem were the focus of the "Harlem Renaissance", an outpouring of artistic work without precedent in the American-black community. However, with job losses during the Great Depression of 1929–1933 and the deindustrialization of New York City after World War II, rates of crime and poverty increased significantly. Harlem's African-American population peaked in the 1950s. In the second half of the 20th century, Harlem became a major hub of African-American businesses. In 2008, the United States Census found that, for the first time since the 1930s, fewer than half of the residents were black, constituting only 40% of the population.Since New York City's revival in the late 20th century, Harlem has been experiencing the effects of gentrification and new wealth.