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Columbia University

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Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City. Columbia contains the oldest college in the state of New York and is the fifth chartered institution of higher learning in the United States, making it one of nine colonial colleges founded prior to the Declaration of Independence. It was established as King's College by royal charter of George II of Great Britain and renamed Columbia College in 1784 following the American Revolutionary War. The college has produced numerous distinguished alumni. It has been among the most selective colleges in the United States since its founding. With an undergraduate acceptance rate of 5.8%, it currently stands as the third most selective college in the United States and the 2nd most selective in the Ivy League. A 1787 charter placed the institution under a private board of trustees before it was renamed Columbia University in 1896 when the campus was moved from Madison Avenue to its current location in Morningside Heights occupying 32 acres (13 ha) of land. Columbia is one of the fourteen founding members of the Association of American Universities and was the first school in the United States to grant the M.D. degree. The university administers the Pulitzer Prize annually. The university is organized into twenty schools, including undergraduate schools such as Columbia College, the School of Engineering and Applied Science, and the School of General Studies, as well as graduate schools such as Columbia Law School, Teachers College, Columbia College of Physicians and Surgeons, and Columbia Business School. The university also has global research outposts in Amman, Beijing, Istanbul, Paris, Mumbai, Rio de Janeiro, Santiago, Asunción and Nairobi. There are nearby institutions that are affiliated with Columbia including Barnard College, List College, and Union Theological Seminary. Columbia also has joint undergraduate programs available through the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, University College London, Sciences Po, City University of Hong Kong, Trinity College Dublin, and the Juilliard School. The university has graduated many notable alumni. As of 2017, alumni and affiliates include 5 Founding Fathers of the United States – amongst these an author of the Declaration of Independence and an author of the United States Constitution; 10 Justices of the United States Supreme Court; 95 Nobel laureates; 20 living billionaires; 123 Pulitzer Prize winners; 39 Academy Award winners; 3 United States Presidents; 29 heads of state; 101 National Academy members; 77 National Medal of Science winners; and 23 National Humanities Medal recipients.